INTERNATIONAL LAW AND DIPLOMACY ON THE CYPRUS QUESTION


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Κωδικός Προϊόντος: 18530
Kareklas I.
O'Keefe R.

The book “International Law and Diplomacy on the Cyprus Question” deals with the Cyprus problem after the Turkish intervention of 1974, which is a matter of international law.

Although Turkey’s intervention has been the subject of much comment, a fresh study has been warranted. This is so, because this book takes advantage of information not available to many of the earlier commentators. The monograph is distinctive in that it ranges beyond the question whether the intervention was lawful to consider the legal and political consequences, which flowed from it, and looks to the future exploring afresh prospects for a just and viable settlement to the Cyprus problem.

It is noteworthy that the book is broad enough to comprise analysis of various branches of the academic fields of International Law and Politics such as:

• the International Law of Armed Conflict and the Use of Force
• International Organizations
• the Law of Treaties
• Statehood
• Human Rights
• International Law Theory
• Conflict Resolution
• Foreign Policy
• Constitutional Theory

The book also includes Appendices in which they are included a recording made for the Oxford Colonial Records Project in Oxford on the 23rd/4/1971 and written Opinion of Prof. Sir Eli Lauterpacht (as he then was to the Cyprus Government).

The aim of the book is: to examine from the International Law viewpoint the 1974 Turkish Intervention of Cyprus; actually, whether there are any grounds upon which Turkey may rely in order to establish the legality of intervention, and to explore the legal and political consequences of the intervention; in this way, the book is forward-looking, as prospects for a future settlement of the Cyprus Issue are analyzed in the light of Public International Law, International Politics, and Constitutional Theory.

The book is addressed to lawyers dealing with international law and all scientific researchers on the Cyprus issue.

FOREWORD Σελ. V
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Σελ. XI
INTRODUCTION Σελ. 1
PART I
ORIGINS
CHAPTER I
DIPLOMATIC CONTEXT TO THE CYPRUS QUESTION
1. The period up to 1960 Σελ. 5
1.1. Brief Historical background Σελ. 5
1.2. Legal Questions arising out of the British Occupation Σελ. 9
1.3. British constitutional proposals for Cyprus Σελ. 11
1.4. The Structure and legal peculiarities of the Constitution Σελ. 18
2. Inter-communal Conflict analysis Σελ. 24
2.1. The Roots of Political Partition in Cyprus Σελ. 24
2.2. The external factors of Political Partition Σελ. 26
3. Foreign involvement 1960-1974: U.S. Foreign Policy on Cyprus Σελ. 33
3.1. U.S. Policy in the Colonial Period of the Cyprus Question Σελ. 33
3.2. The independent Republic of Cyprus and the United States Σελ. 35
3.3. The Acheson Plan Σελ. 36
3.4. The events leading to 1974 and the U.S. role Σελ. 37
CHAPTER II
THE TURKISH MILITARY INTERVENTION OF CYPRUS: THE ARGUMENT FROM THE TREATY OF GUARANTEE
1. Turkish justifications for the intervention and claims regarding the treaty Σελ. 41
2. Treaty of Guarantee and International Law Σελ. 43
2.1. Theories on the Legality of Military Intervention by Treaty Right Σελ. 43
2.2. Arguments for the Legality of Intervention envisaged by Treary Σελ. 46
(i) Legitimate limitation of a State’s sovereignty Σελ. 46
(ii) Volenti non fit injuria Σελ. 47
(iii) Pacta sunt servanda Σελ. 47
2.3. Arguments against the legality of Intervention provided for by Treaty right Σελ. 48
(i) General Principles of Law Σελ. 48
(ii) Treaties reached under Duress or Inequitable Treaties Σελ. 52
(iii) Sovereign equality Σελ. 53
3. Did the Treaty of Guarantee purport to authorize military action? Σελ. 54
4. Criteria set by the Guarantee Treaty and the conduct of Turkey Σελ. 59
5. The subsequent actions of Turkey Σελ. 61
6. Stance taken by the International Community Σελ. 63
7. Conclusion Σελ. 64
CHAPTER III
INTERNATIONAL LAW AND POLITICAL THEORY ON HUMANITARIAN MILITARY INTERVENTION
1. Historical Evidence of Humanitarian Interventions Σελ. 67
2. State Practice Σελ. 69
2.1. Pre-Charter Unilateral Humanitarian Interventions Σελ. 69
(i) Intervention of Great Britain, France and Russia in aid of Greek Revolutionaries Σελ. 69
(ii) French occupation of Syria, 1860-1 Σελ. 71
(iii) United States Intervention in Cuba, 1898 Σελ. 72
2.2. Post-Charter Unilateral Humanitarian Interventions Σελ. 73
(i) Belgian and US intervention in the Congo, 1964. Σελ. 73
(ii) Indian Invasion of Bangladesh, 1971. Σελ. 74
(iii) Tanzanian Intervention in Uganda, 1978-9. Σελ. 75
(iv) Assessment of State practice Σελ. 76
2.3. Post-Charter UN Humanitarian Interventions Σελ. 77
(i) Iraq, 1991 Σελ. 78
(ii) Liberia, 1990 Σελ. 78
(iii) Kosovo, 1999 Σελ. 79
3. Legal and Political Theory on Humanitarian Intervention Σελ. 79
3.1. Sovereignty v. Human Rights Σελ. 80
3.2. Just War (Bellum Justum) Σελ. 82
(i) War is not in conflict with the Law of Nature Σελ. 82
(ii) Biblical texts arguments that war is compatible with the law of the Gospel Σελ. 82
3.3. War as punishment Σελ. 83
3.4. War in the name of the oppressed Σελ. 84
4. Criteria and Conclusions on the Turkish Intervention Σελ. 84
PART II
CONSEQUENCES OF THE INTERVENTION
CHAPTER IV
THE TURKISH FEDERATED STATE AND THE “TRNC”
1. Doctrinal considerations Σελ. 89
1.1. Jus Gentium and Positivism Σελ. 89
1.2. The Constitutive theory Σελ. 90
1.3. The declaratory theory Σελ. 91
2. States created as a result of illegal use of force and the “TRNC” Σελ. 92
3. Classic Criteria for Statehood and the “TRNC” Σελ. 98
3.1. Defined Territory Σελ. 98
3.2. Permanent Population Σελ. 99
3.3. Government Σελ. 100
3.4. Independence Σελ. 101
4. Self-determination and the “TRNC” Σελ. 102
4.1. Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot arguments on Self-Determination Σελ. 105
5. Unilateral secession, self-determination and the "TRNC" Σελ. 112
6. International community reaction to the “TRNC” Unilateral Declaration of Independence Σελ. 119
7. Conclusions Σελ. 120
CHAPTER V
HUMAN RIGHTS
1. Loizidou Case Σελ. 123
2.The Case Cyprus v. Turkey Σελ. 124
PART III
THE FUTURE-THOUGHTS ON A SETTLEMENT
CHAPTER VI
THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE CYPRUS PROBLEM
1. The period before Independence Σελ. 133
2. The period after the inter-communal fighting until 1974 Σελ. 135
3. The period from the Turkish intervention 1974 to the present day Σελ. 141
4. Evaluation of U.N. Political Organs’ role in International Dispute Settlement Σελ. 150
CHAPTER VII
FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONS AND HUMAN RIGHTS LAW
1. Turkish promotion of federation Σελ. 153
2. The Concept of Federalism Σελ. 155
3. Federal State for Cyprus: A Constitutional Law perspective Σελ. 156
3.1. Classical Greek federal consitutions Σελ. 159
(i) The Nature of a Greek Federal State Σελ. 159
(ii) The Aetolian Confederacy Σελ. 164
(iii) The Achaean Confederacy Σελ. 166
3.2. Modern federal government Σελ. 169
4. Federation and Human Rights Σελ. 179
5. European Union involvement in the settlement of the Cyprus Issue Σελ. 183
6. The principles pacta sunt servanda and rebus sic stantibus Σελ. 187
CHAPTER VIII
SUGGESTED PROPOSAL AND STRATEGIC PARAMETRES
1. Suggested Solution Σελ. 195
2. Human Rights in Foreign Policy Σελ. 199
3. Strategic Considerations Σελ. 200
4. Epilogue Σελ. 203
CHAPTER IX
SECURITY POLICIES ON THE CYPRUS PROBLEM: INTERNATIONAL LAW AND STRATEGIC PARAMETRES Σελ. 205
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Σελ. 215
APPENDIX I - RHODES HOUSE LIBRARY OXFORD Σελ. 229
APPENDIX II - Written Opinion of Professor Sir Eli Lauterpacht to the Cyprus Government Σελ. 247
INDEX Σελ. 251
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